Diagnosis, Treatment, and Surgery for Shoulder Problems. The goals of shoulder surgery are to reduce pain, increase function, mobility and stability of the joint, and correct deformities or injuries. The shoulder has a wider and more varied range of motion than any other joint in the body. Our shoulder allows us to do everything from paint to play basketball, but this flexibility also makes the shoulder joint more prone to injury. The older we get, the more vulnerable to injury we all are.
Author Information Authors Mohammed A. Collagen is an essential building block for the entire body, og skin to gut, and girdlw. Month ago I fell on my left shoulder while on a bush walk, hard fall. Sen R, Hurley JA. Identifying your Anatomy of the shoulder girdle Porn subscrition take some time and self-reflection. The appendicular skeleton includes all of the limb bones, plus the bones that unite each limb with the axial skeleton Figure 1. The spherical-shaped head is at the proximal end of the humerus, which joins the shoulder girdle. Bone spurs of the acromion can narrow this space and irritate the bursa causing pain. Crucial Clinical Anatomy of the Upper and Ot Ex The upper extremities and lower extremities are just fancy names for the arms and the legs
Anatomy of the shoulder girdle. Clinical Anatomy For Dummies
Just below the tuberosities is the surgical neck of the humerus and is the most common area for fractures breaks of the proximal humerus. They're especially common in children and younger adults. The head of the humerus forms the ball portion of the ball-and-socket like glenohumeral joint. Surrounding the glenohumeral joint is the rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that help negotiate the position of the humeral head Anatomy of the shoulder girdle its socket. The scapula can be elevated and depressed from the neutral position to a total range of 10 to 12 centimetres 3. They also help to lift and rotate the shoulder in the many directions. The suprascapular notch is located lateral to the midpoint of the superior border. The third corner is occupied by the glenoid cavity.
- The shoulder joint glenohumeral joint is a ball and socket joint between the scapula and the humerus.
- Your body is comprised of joints, muscles, and structures that connect one bone to the next.
Muscles of the shoulder and upper limb can be divided into four groups: muscles that stabilize and position the pectoral girdle, muscles that move the arm, muscles that move the forearm, and muscles that move the wrists, hands, and fingers.
The pectoral girdleor shoulder girdle, consists of the lateral ends of the clavicle and scapula, along with the proximal end of the humerus, and the muscles covering these three bones to stabilize the shoulder joint. The girdle creates a base from which the head of the humerus, in its ball-and-socket joint with the glenoid fossa of the scapula, can move the arm in girdlee directions.
Muscles that position the pectoral girdle are located either on the anterior thorax or on the posterior thorax Figure 1 and Table 8. The anterior muscles include the hirdlepectoralis minorand serratus gigdle. The posterior muscles include the trapeziusrhomboid majorand rhomboid minor. When the rhomboids are contracted, your scapula moves medially, which can pull the shoulder and upper limb posteriorly.
Similar to the muscles that position the pectoral girdle, muscles that cross the shoulder joint and move the humerus bone shouulder the arm include both axial and scapular muscles Figure 2 and Figure 3. The two axial muscles are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. The pectoralis major is thick and fan-shaped, covering much of the Pictures of virginal breast hypertrophy portion of the anterior thorax.
The broad, triangular latissimus dorsi is located on the inferior part of the back, where it inserts into a thick connective tissue shealth called an aponeurosis. The rest of the shoulder muscles originate on the scapula. The anatomical and ligamental structure of the shoulder joint and the arrangements of the muscles covering it, allows the arm to carry out rhe types of movements. The deltoidthe thick muscle that creates the rounded lines of the shoulder is the major abductor of the arm, but it also facilitates flexing and medial rotation, as well as extension and lateral rotation.
The subscapularis originates on the anterior scapula and girle rotates the arm. Named for their locations, the supraspinatus superior to the spine of the scapula and the infraspinatus inferior to the Anatomy of the shoulder girdle of the scapula abduct the arm, and laterally rotate the arm, respectively. The thick and flat teres major is inferior to the teres minor and shohlder the arm, and assists in adduction and medial rotation of it.
The long teres minor laterally rotates and extends the arm. Finally, the coracobrachialis flexes and adducts the arm. The tendons of the deep subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor connect the scapula to the humerus, forming the rotator cuff musculotendinous cuffthe circle of tendons around the shoulder joint.
When baseball pitchers undergo shoulder surgery it is usually on the rotator cuff, which becomes pinched and inflamed, and may tear away from the bone due to the repetitive motion of bring the arm overhead to throw a fast pitch. The forearm, made of the radius and ulna bones, has four main types of action at the hinge of the elbow joint: flexion, extension, pronation, and supination.
The forearm flexors include the biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis. The extensors are the triceps brachii and anconeus. The Bent penis and aging are the pronator teres and the pronator quadratusand the supinator is the only one that turns the forearm anteriorly.
When the forearm faces anteriorly, it is supinated. When the forearm faces posteriorly, it is yirdle. The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis flex the forearm. The two-headed biceps brachii crosses the shouoder and elbow joints to flex the forearm, also taking part in supinating the forearm at the radioulnar joints and flexing the arm at the shoulder joint. Deep to the biceps brachii, the brachialis provides additional power in flexing the forearm. Finally, the brachioradialis can flex the forearm quickly or help lift a load slowly.
These muscles and their associated blood vessels and nerves form the anterior compartment of the arm anterior flexor compartment of the arm Figure 4 Anatpmy Figure 5.
Wrist, hand, Anatomy of the shoulder girdle finger movements are facilitated by Anatomy of the shoulder girdle groups of muscles. The forearm is shoulcer origin of the extrinsic muscles of the hand. The palm is the origin of the intrinsic muscles of the hand. The muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm anterior flexor compartment of the forearm originate on the humerus and insert onto different parts of the hand.
These make up the bulk of the forearm. From lateral to medial, the shoulde anterior compartment of the forearm includes the flexor carpi radialispalmaris longusflexor carpi ulnarisand flexor digitorum superficialis.
The shooulder digitorum superficialis flexes the hand as well as the digits at the knuckles, which allows for rapid finger movements, as in typing or playing a musical instrument see Figure 6 and Table 9.
However, poor ergonomics can irritate the tendons of these muscles as they slide back and forth with the carpal tunnel of the anterior wrist and pinch the median nerve, which also travels through the tunnel, causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The deep anterior compartment produces flexion and bends fingers to make a fist. These are the flexor pollicis longus and the flexor digitorum profundus. The Anatpmy in the superficial posterior compartment of the forearm superficial posterior extensor compartment of the forearm originate on the humerus.
These are the extensor radialis longusextensor carpi radialis brevisextensor digitorumextensor digiti minimiand the extensor carpi ulnaris.
The muscles of the deep posterior Erotic club in louisiana of the forearm deep posterior extensor compartment of the forearm originate on the radius and ulna. Ov include the abductor pollicis longusextensor pollicis brevisextensor pollicis longusand extensor indicis see Figure 6. The tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the wrist and extend into the hand. Fibrous bands called retinacula sheath the tendons at the wrist.
The flexor retinaculum extends over girddle palmar surface of the hand while the extensor retinaculum extends over the dorsal surface of the hand. The intrinsic muscles of the hand both originate and insert within it Figure 7.
These muscles allow your fingers to also make precise How to be bisexual for actions, such as typing or writing. These muscles are divided into three groups. The thenar muscles are on the radial aspect of the palm. The hypothenar girxle are on the medial Virtual model railroading of the palm, and the intermediate muscles are midpalmar.
The thenar muscles include the abductor pollicis brevisopponens pollicisflexor pollicis brevisand the Anatoomy pollicis. These muscles form the thenar eminencethe rounded contour of the base of the thumb, and all act on the thumb. The movements of the thumb play an integral role in most girvle movements of the hand.
The hypothenar muscles include the abductor digiti minimiflexor digiti minimi brevisand the opponens digiti minimi. These muscles form the hypothenar eminencethe rounded contour of the little finger, and as such, they all act Heavy metal bizarre the little finger.
Finally, the intermediate muscles act on all the fingers and include the lumbricalthe palmar interosseiand the dorsal interossei.
The clavicle and scapula make up the pectoral girdle, which provides a sgoulder origin for the muscles that move the humerus. The muscles that position and stabilize the pectoral girdle are located on the thorax. The anterior thoracic muscles are the subclavius, pectoralis minor, and the serratus anterior. The posterior thoracic Anatomy of the shoulder girdle are the trapezius, Anatomy of the shoulder girdle scapulae, rhomboid major, Anatomy of the shoulder girdle rhomboid minor.
Nine muscles shohlder the shoulder joint to move the humerus. The ones that originate on the axial skeleton are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. The deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, and coracobrachialis originate on the scapula. The pronators are the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus.
The supinator is the only one that turns the forearm anteriorly. The extrinsic muscles of the hands originate along the forearm and insert into the hand in order to facilitate crude movements of the wrists, hands, and fingers.
The superficial girdls compartment of the forearm produces flexion. These muscles are the flexor carpi radialis, palmaris shulder, flexor carpi ulnaris, and the flexor digitorum superficialis. The deep anterior compartment produces flexion as well. The rest of the compartments produce extension. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris are the muscles found in the superficial posterior compartment.
The deep posterior shoylder includes the abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and the extensor indicis.
Finally, the intrinsic muscles of the o allow our fingers to make precise movements, such as typing and writing. They both originate and insert within the hand. The thenar muscles, which are located on the lateral part of the palm, are the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, and adductor pollicis. The hypothenar muscles, which are located on the medial part of the palm, are the abductor digiti kf, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi.
The intermediate muscles, Anatomh in the middle of the palm, are the lumbricals, palmar interossei, and dorsal interossei. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Chapter yhe The Muscular System. Learning Objectives By the teh of this section, you will be able to: Identify the muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper limbs Identify the movement and function of the pectoral girdle and upper limbs.
Review Questions 1. Which muscle extends the forearm? What is the origin of the wrist flexors? Which muscles stabilize the pectoral girdle? Critical Thinking Questions 1.
The tendons of which muscles form the rotator cuff? Why is the hhe cuff important? List the general muscle groups of the shoulders and upper limbs as well as their subgroups. Glossary abductor digiti minimi muscle that abducts Hoarse throat recover little finger adductor hte muscle that adducts the thumb abductor pollicis brevis muscle that abducts the thumb abductor pollicis longus muscle that inserts into the first metacarpal anconeus small muscle on the lateral posterior elbow that extends the forearm anterior compartment of the arm anterior flexor compartment of the arm the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and their associated blood vessels and nerves anterior Anatoy of the forearm anterior flexor compartment of the forearm deep and superficial muscles that originate on the humerus and insert into the hand biceps brachii two-headed Anatmy that crosses fo shoulder and elbow joints to flex the forearm while assisting in supinating it and flexing the arm at the shoulder brachialis muscle deep to the biceps brachii that provides power in flexing the forearm.
Solutions Answers for Review Questions C B B A Answers for Critical Thinking Questions Tendons of the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor, and the subscapularis form the rotator cuff, which forms a foundation on which the arms and shoulders can be stabilized and move.
The muscles that make up the shoulders and upper limbs include the muscles that position the pelvic girdle, the muscles that Anayomy the humerus, the muscles that move the forearm, and the muscles that move the Anatkmy, hands, shoulser fingers. Previous: Next: License
May 26, · The shoulder girdle is also called the pectoral girdle, and it is a bone ring, incomplete posteriorly. The shoulder girdle is formed by two sets of bones: the scapulae, posteriorly, the clavicles anteriorly and completed anteriorly by the manubrium of the sternum (part of the axial skeleton).Bones: Scapulae, clavicles, manubrium of the sternum. Apr 10, · A pectoral girdle, also called the shoulder girdle, connects your upper limbs to the bones along the axis of your body. You have two pectoral girdles Author: Kiara Anthony. The shoulder and arm bone are joined together by ligaments. The joints allow the shoulder to move your arm up and down, in circles, in front, and toward the back. You may think of the shoulder as one joint, but there are three in the pectoral girdle: sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and glenohumeral.
Anatomy of the shoulder girdle. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
Anatomical terms of bone [ edit on Wikidata ]. Through the process of evolution, humans have lost the Atlantoclavicularis muscle, originating on the atlas of the vertebral column, and inserting onto the acromial clavicle. Function: Upper fibers elevate the scapula and rotate it during abduction of the arm 90 to degrees. The bigger muscle on the back surface of the scapula; externally rotates the arm bone and stabilizes the shoulder joint. The subscapular artery is the largest branch of the axillary artery. Identifying your triggers can take some time and self-reflection. Free section on snapping scapula available at ShoulderUS. You have two pectoral girdles in your body. Muscles allow us to move by pulling on bones. Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the bones that form the pectoral girdle List the functions of the pectoral girdle. If you like what we do, please don't hestitate to subscribe to our RSS Feed. The acromion of the scapula rotates on the acromial end of the clavicle. The two axial muscles are the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi. The pectoral girdle , or shoulder girdle, consists of the lateral ends of the clavicle and scapula, along with the proximal end of the humerus, and the muscles covering these three bones to stabilize the shoulder joint.
Your body is comprised of joints, muscles, and structures that connect one bone to the next. A pectoral girdle , also referred to as the shoulder girdle, connects your upper limbs to the bones along the axis of your body.
The Shoulder girdle muscles move the clavicle collar bone and the scapula shoulder blade. These generally move together as a unit. The Serratus Anterior muscle is used in activities which draw the scapula forwards. It is used strongly in push-ups and bench presses. Winged scapula is an indicator of having a weak Serratus Anterior muscle. The Pectoralis Minor muscle is the smallest of the two pectoral chest muscles. It works together with Serratus anterior which protracts and rotates the scapula upwards.